The Promise of Blockchain Technology in Fighting Climate Change

Our civilisation is becoming ever more hungry for energy – yet at the same time, the planet on which we live is balancing climate systems that are ever more fragile and delicate.

It’s a challenging time for all of us, as we balance personal and professional lives that simply cannot slow down in the face of the pressures placed upon us. Despite this, our precious planet remains an ongoing casualty of our need to succeed – and many of us are feeling growing concern, as the unpredictable 2020s go on, that we have long passed the point of no return for climate change.

The energy community worldwide is standing against obstacles unlike anything ever seen before – from utility companies and electricity providers, to raw resource procurement businesses – as well as households and companies doing their best to keep their power consumption down and go greener with smart-grid solutions.

How best to thrive, let alone survive, with such tremendous pressures bearing down on us all? The answer – as with so much of what our future holds – rests in blockchain technology.

The blockchain’s embrace of greener energy

Taking a look at the headlines often means painting blockchain technology in a bad light when it comes to energy use. These concerts have some merit – after all, Bitcoin mining alone uses a great deal of energy – yet these concerns often fall short of the environmental breakthroughs being made in the cryptocurrency space, but also the difference at large between crypto assets and blockchain technologies.

In other words, using the blockchain within the energy community ought only to raise eyebrows of excitement – not of concern. Blockchain technology is independent of cryptocurrencies – it simply is the means by which they function. Furthermore, innovations such as staking and similar have removed both crypto and blockchain technologies from their previous energy hungry ways to great effect.

In fact, both Prosume and Mangrovia believe that the future of energy is to be intertwined even more intrinsically with blockchain technologies and philosophies alike. That means not only a more reliable way for technology to autonomously and trustlessly perpetuate the energy community needs of tomorrow – but also ways for smart-grids and related technologies to feel the empowerment of decentralisation and other solutions, as inspired by the libertarian thinking behind blockchain technology as a whole.

Can the blockchain fight climate change?

When considering how smart-grid solutions and blockchain energy technologies interact, it’s important to remember that we are not suggesting that blockchain technologies alone are the answer to solving climate change.

That’s because this is a vast and planetwide problem, so no one answer is the only answer – the energy community and our society as a whole needs to come together.

The complications that come with solving the global climate crisis are often made more difficult to solve due to how complicated the energy industry is overall. When you step into your home office, flip the light switch, adjust the heating and turn on the computer, you’re understandably likely not to think anything of it.

Yet behind the scenes, an enormous amount of resources, data and trading of energy is in play just to make these conveniences happen. It’s this complex interplay of trading, promises, deals and safe energy provision that the blockchain is able to solve.

Consider also that the world is at a delicate inflection point, where green energy production and distribution is finally attainable, yet the demands of the power sector overall are so immense that most advanced economies are forced to rely on fossil fuels in the immediate term or face unacceptable disruptions to the very foundations of how civilisation functions.

As you can imagine, with all of us having experienced our society grinding to a halt overnight once before since this decade began, few of us are keen to see it happen again – least of all with something so fundamental to our health, wealth and happiness as energy.

Naturally, the goal of society is to eventually – or preferably, immediately – transition away from dangerous and pollutive sources of energy to instead function solely by clean and renewable energy sources.

As many of us have seen, these incentives are often stifled by the slow moving wheels of bureaucracy, not to mention the squabbles of politicians using the climate as leverage over their opponents instead of seeing it as a dire problem that needs to be solved.

With blockchain technology and the smart-grids that it can help to empower, the energy community can take a decisive and constructive step away from politicking and sluggish climate responses.

Instead, with blockchain technology in the driving seat, energy providers, their customers and key stakeholders across the entire value chain are able to interact not only with greater transparency, but also greater protection and greater privacy.

Because the blockchain does all the heavy lifting, people are free to not only more safely source and pay for their energy, but also continue promoting, creating and cultivating sources of green energy.

The blockchain can intelligently direct customers towards those greener energy sources too, creating incentives for producers and suppliers among the energy community to go greener faster – it’s where all the customers are, after all!

The blockchain streamlines energy payments

Much has been said of the rising price of energy, and with that comes the complications of customers settling their rising bills – not to mention the rise of financial crime and online fraud surrounding these very concerns.

Even in cases in which cryptocurrency itself isn’t used, the fully traceable, fundamentally, immutable and entirely private nature of the blockchain makes it a fantastic payment processing solution for the energy community.

Remember, smart-grid technologies thrive on not only a more equitable exchange framework between providers and customers, but also ways in which peer to peer energy solutions or customers selling their own generated energy back to the grid can thrive.

The blockchain streamlines all of this, with every transaction locked by smart contracts that activate and record any and all exchanges of both power and money that take place. With this more flexible approach, energy can be bought, sold and traded easily among an energy community the size of a nation, a smart-grid city, or even within a neighbourhood.

How decentralisation can empower the energy industry

Information silos hurt any business, and the energy community of utilities and providers active worldwide are no exception. Because energy is a business first and foremost, the drive to outperform competitors and protect corporate secrets can create an inadvertent culture of centralisation within the energy sector that hurts not only users and communities – but also the fight against climate change itself.

Decentralisation is often romanticised as a solution in which all authority and control is prised away from the people at the top and reclaimed by the members of the community themselves. In reality, the truth is a touch more nuanced.

Decentralisation is more a question of making sure that there is a fairer balance of influence between the people in authority – classically utility and distribution companies in the classic energy community – versus the end users, or customers and householders in the energy industry’s case.

When the energy community is more decentralised, everyone benefits. This is because energy providers themselves are subject to the same rules of blockchain smart contracts as end users are, and those rules are mechanical and faultless – no room for corruption or for people creating trouble for their own financial gain.

Similarly, thanks to decentralisation, energy users are no longer at the mercy of their utility providers alone. For example, through the blockchain decentralisation of how and where a customer sources their energy, a householder is more free to shop around.

Don’t like the price your provider is inflating while the industry goes through turmoil? Turn to a peer to peer provider or simply shop around within the blockchain energy ecosystem instead.

Using your own machinery to generate more energy than your home or business needs? With blockchain decentralisation, there is far less bureaucracy to jump through in making money off that excess power – the blockchain is handling the finer details, and can likewise use smart-grid thinking to automatically connect that energy with the people who need it most.

So far, so free market, right? To an extent, yes – but money is not the ultimate goal here, saving the planet is. To that end, the most important aspect of why decentralisation works for a blockchain energy community is that smart-grids empowered in this way can more efficiently distribute the energy being generated.

After all, a huge part of fighting climate change comes down to simply using energy more intelligently, from the humblest households to the most magnanimous of multinationals.

Each of us has a role to play in using the energy we consume for work and play intelligently – and with the precise guidance of the blockchain, working hand in hand with decentralisation, smart-grid solutions can far more effectively help users make intelligent choices in how their energy is used.

Blockchain smart-grid technology helps shape smarter energy use

Energy efficiency is a huge part of fighting climate change. Even entirely reconfiguring the means by which we as a civilisation gain and utilise our power means next to nothing if we are still wasting much of the power being produced.

A true fight against climate change is just as much a case of effectively using the Earth’s resources as it is effectively using the energy moving through the wires and pipes of our communities.

Best practices are widely known in the world of today, of course, yet there is also a rising level of scepticism in play that is damaging the entire climate change resistance movement. Sadly, that’s because many companies are simply content to greenwash their roles in climate change, and consumers are aware – and discontent.

If greenwashing has such a damaging effect on customers’ goals in fighting climate change, how are people who are trying to do the right thing supposed to know what to think? Placing the burden of responsibility on end users in the energy community isn’t just unreasonable, it’s unrealistic – people don’t have access to the best information in order to make the best energy choices, yet they also don’t always trust the people telling them which such choices to make either.

Here, blockchain smart-grid energy technology can help. With usage data logged immutably on the blockchain, more intelligent advice on how best to use the energy entering the home or office can be delivered by the platform itself.

Similarly, with so much data moving throughout the blockchain, smart-grid efficiency becomes that much more enhanced. Just as end users are able to make more intelligent decisions as to what devices to use at what time to minimise their carbon impact, so to speak, so too can energy providers more intelligently balance grid demands and efficiency drives to make the most of the resources being moved throughout the system.

Altogether, the end result is a far more equitable and balanced one than many of the power systems active today. A more engaged energy community, each in control of their own domains via the blockchain, can enjoy a system that is more robust and resilient against unprecedented demand – an especially big concern in today’s times.

With all of this combined, an energy community forms that’s emboldened by purpose, unburdened by bureaucracy and driven by the most important goal of all – saving our planet from the ever encroaching threat of climate change.

Putting the blockchain to work for the betterment of humankind

Blockchain technology has landed headline after headline over the last decade – and it’s fair to say that some of these have been more favourable than others.

As with any new technology, the blockchain is a powerful invention that can promote all kinds of endeavours in all kinds of directions – and at Prosume, we believe that putting it to work fighting climate change is one of the most important goals of all.

From smart-grid solutions to P2P trading and effective resource management, there’s no limit to what the blockchain can unlock in energy efficiency and greener power.

EIT Community Booster announces 20 selected New European Bauhaus ventures and Prosume is one of them

12 April 2022 – Budapest, Hungary – From a large pool of 1029 applications, twenty highly innovative European start-ups and scale-ups have been selected for the EIT Community Booster receiving business growth and support services worth EUR 50 000 each – Prosume is one of them. The EIT Community Booster was launched by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) and five of its Knowledge & Innovation Communities to support innovative ventures enabling the New European Bauhaus transformation.

Supporting the New European Bauhaus in building beautiful and sustainable experiences together, the EIT Community Booster will support the selected ventures in the form of grants and services to help them drive sustainable change for cities, industries, climate, food, wellbeing and improve the overall quality of life of European citizens. The winning teams have been selected among a large pool of 1029 applications from 37 countries and operate across a wide spectrum of sectors and industries.

Mariya Gabriel, Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth, said: “The New European Bauhaus is becoming a reality, ready to bring the ambitious goals of the European Green Deal into the spaces, cities, and homes we live in. The selected ventures are just the beginning. With the support of EIT, more innovators and entrepreneurs will enrich and reshape our living spaces and experiences.”

Gioia Ghezzi, Chair of the EIT Governing Board said: ‘We were blown away, not only by the number of applications received – showing the real appetite for business support – but also by the quality of innovations. We think the selected ventures can be true international game-changers and we look forward to working with them to speed up Europe’s movement towards the three key elements of the New European Bauhaus: sustainability, aesthetics and inclusion.’

Selected innovations range from sustainable urban farms that use 90% less water, to using soil microbes to generate light and energy, to transforming building facades to grow and protect biodiversity and fauna in public spaces. The full list of ventures and innovations that will receive support from the EIT Community Booster can be found in the factsheet here.

This initiative by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is led by EIT Climate-KIC and includes EIT Digital, EIT Food, EIT Manufacturing and EIT Urban Mobility.

Blockchain is Paving the Way for Renewable Energy

Green technologies have undergone rapid developments in recent years. This has been spurred by privatisation in the energy sector, and the unbundling of activities begun by the EU in 1996. The commitments made to decarbonisation in the Paris Agreement of 2015 further cemented the central role of renewable energies in the design of the energy markets of the 21st century.

Yet, for all their promise, renewable energy sources are unpredictable and reliant on weather. This raises fresh challenges in the operations of energy grids as new technologies are sought to ensure their safe operation.

Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology (DLT), that has attracted considerable interest from industry, governments, and academia. It’s a decentralised database on a peer-to-peer network that promises significant innovations in industry. Yet, despite the headlines, the energy sector has been lagging in adopting blockchain technology. Nonetheless, a growing number of startups, developers, and investors are harnessing the power of blockchain to build the grid of the future.

The decentralisation of the power grid

The introduction of smart meters and IoT connected devices has accelerated the emergence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). This is further accentuated by breakthroughs in solar panel technology and battery storage. These breakthroughs mean households can store energy efficiently for power generation and load balancing. This creates the prospect of trading and consuming energy cost-effectively. Energy trading is powered by  peer-to-peer networks where citizens trade on local mini grids. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks signal the beginnings of a radically new energy consumption model. In this model, consumers also become producers of energy. They’re called prosumers. These green energy producers trade their surplus power with their peers on the network. They accomplish this without the controlling authority of a central network operator. This represents a major shift from centralised power generation to democratised energy sharing.

This new operating model does, however, create its own challenges. A decentralised many-agent exchange system needs smart management for reliable operation. Advanced communications and encryption are required between the many parts of the distributed network. The size of the challenge is highlighted by the EU’s commitment to invest EUR 1.1 trillion between 2021 and 2027 as part of its Green Deal initiative. This is further highlighted by its commitment to a renewables share in energy production of 32% by 2030.

Blockchain developers are naturally excited by the challenges presented by the decentralised power grid. Blockchain is the natural solution to a web of complex transactions. It’s the solution to balancing loads in a distributed network. The technology is potentially as revolutionary as the internet and introduces significant process improvements. It replaces centralised control with decentralised consensus mechanisms. It encourages a spirit of transparency, removes intermediaries, and increases trust.

Over a hundred use cases have been identified for the application of blockchain in renewable energies. These include, for example, authenticating renewables at the point of origin. Or regulating energy flows on the grid. Of all these applications, peer-to-peer energy trading is gaining the most traction. It’s underpinned by smart contracts which trigger automatically once conditions are met. For example, smart contracts could match buyers and sellers of electricity in real-time. Once electricity is delivered, payments are made automatically.

Blockchain-enabled decentralisaton introduces a new level of transparency and trust.

What is blockchain?

Blockchains are shared databases (or ledgers) that store and verify transactions without the intervention of a central authority. One of the most powerful features of blockchains are smart contracts which automate the execution of contracts on a peer-to-peer network. Since blockchains were designed for a decentralised network, they’re the natural solution for regulating a decentralised energy network.

Blockchains allow users to make changes to the ledger simultaneously. Users reach agreement on the network via a consensus mechanism. Once a block is confirmed, it’s added to the blockchain. A unique hash ties each block to the previous block. Every user on the network has complete visibility of every transaction recorded on the blockchain. Compare this to a bank which uses its own methods for confirming transactions. Plus, you’d only have access to records of your own transactions, nobody else’s.

Blockchain for the smart grid

The proliferation of distributed energy resources and advancements in technology are powering the smart grid. A decentralised energy grid requires new approaches and technologies. Blockchain technology is primed to power the smart grid.

Distributed energy systems, embodied by P2P energy networks, have three strategic objectives: decarbonisation, decentralisation and digitalisation. This is underpinned by the EU Electricity Directives, which shift the balance of power in the consumer’s favour. It’s further underpinned by the commitments made by the EU in its European Green Deal initiative. However, the current structure of the energy grid does not yet permit the full development of a smart and decentralised grid. There are insufficient incentives for small market players or consumers to fully participate. It’s a work-in-progress which blockchain developers are keen to embrace. They’re developing applications that realise the vision of the smart grid.

Operating a decentralised energy system presents many challenges. A grid management system would need to know how much energy is produced and consumed at different locations and times on the grid. It would need to understand usage patterns, demands, and production capacities of a large number of prosumers. This implies the coordination of resources between multiple energy sources. And requires the monitoring and processing of an enormous amount of data. This presents unique challenges in communications and data management.

A smart infrastructure that can support voluminous amounts of data is required. The introduction of smart meters and internet connected devices (Internet of Things) is enabling the collection of vast amounts of data. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) are enabling the use of this data to identify usage patterns. Thus, variations in supply and demand of energy can be monitored to balance the load across the grid.

The economic benefits of applying blockchain technology to energy consumption are significant. Energy prices are rising. And so is fuel poverty. In the UK alone, consumers are facing a GBP 139 million rise in energy bills. Blockchain technology automates transactions, increases trust, improves efficiency, and reduces costs for energy producers and consumers.

Applications of blockchain in renewable energy production

We now understand what blockchain technology can do to enable a more efficient and economical power grid. It’d be useful to turn our attention to some practical applications of blockchain in renewable energy production.

Smart grid applications

We’ve just seen how blockchain applications facilitate the transfer of data between internet connected devices, so-called smart devices. These include smart meters, home energy controllers, environmental monitoring devices, sensors, and network monitoring equipment.

Grid management

Besides facilitating the transfer of data across a distributed energy network, blockchain applications help monitor and optimise resources across these networks. They monitor supply and demand while redistributing excess energy  where it’s needed. Blockchain applications could also facilitate the sharing of resources, such as electric vehicle charging points.

Data privacy

Data privacy is a major regulatory requirement. This was highlighted by the introduction of the GDPR regulations in 2018. In a decentralised energy network powered by intense transfers of data, protecting personal information is a top priority. Blockchain applications confirm transactions using cryptography. Ciphers and encryption keys encode data in transit. Further, Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) algorithms add another layer of security to blockchain applications. They can even protect individual blocks from unauthorised access.


It may feel counter-intuitive to think that a secure data network is also transparent. An attractive benefit of blockchain is that you can pair it with ZKP technology and choose which information to share. This way, you can prove the source of information without needing to reveal anything else about the data underneath it. This improves transparency and trust in decentralised energy networks.


Blockchain applications powered by smart contracts enable precise and automated billing via smart meters. This opens up possibilities for innovative payment solutions, such as micro-payments, pay-as-you go, or prepayment.

Imbalances between energy supplied and energy consumed are a daily reality in the energy markets. These are mainly due to delays in reconciliation and confirmation. Blockchain applications could trace energy generated and consumed back to their sources. This would enable real-time visibility of imbalances and speed up confirmations. And because they’re already enabled by smart contracts, and communicating with smart meters, they could enable real-time billing. In this context, blockchain applications could register individual consumer preferences and tailor offers to their individual needs. Thus, energy producers benefit from a risk-reduced profile and consumers from personalised product offerings.

Wholesale energy trading

We’ve just touched on the delays and latency issues affecting the energy markets. Reconciliations and confirmations are often done manually, involving several intermediaries such as brokers, banks and regulators. As each intermediary verifies transactions, the process from initialisation to settlement is slow and time-consuming. Each step in this process adds costs for energy producers and consumers.

Blockchain applications connect producers with suppliers directly. Thus, small operators and localised generators circumvent the fees associated with intermediaries. Smart contracts could automate the search for deals. Once a match was found, it would authorise payments automatically. It would record every transaction permanently in the blockchain. This record would be available for scrutiny by the consumer, system operator, or producer. This scenario would be impossible to achieve with the current power grid system.


One of the most attractive features of blockchain is the automation of transactions and processes. This increases the adoption of P2P energy trading models and encourages the production and consumption of local renewable energy resources.

Blockchain in P2P energy trading

The majority of use cases of blockchain applications are in P2P energy trading. It’s easy to see why: P2P energy trading facilitates the trading of energy between producers and consumers. In this model, consumers are also producers (prosumers). They produce their energy locally from renewable energy sources (solar and wind) and trade their surpluses with their peers. So consumers either consume or produce energy depending on their needs. Because prosumers trade on local mini grids, it’s the perfect setting for testing nascent blockchain applications. The challenge for blockchain developers, however, is how to fit this model into the existing distribution network. Ultimately, network operators will retain responsibility for the distribution of energy, while blockchain improves its management and delivery.

Locally generated energy significantly reduces loads and distribution losses on the power grid. It empowers local communities to generate power from renewable energy sources while providing ancillary support to the power grid. Thus, the power grid can ensure contigency supply  as required and defer expensive upgrades to the network.

Distributed energy resources can operate in synchronicity with the power grid or in complete autonomy. Thus, P2P energy trading is a positive socioeconomic development which shifts control back into consumers’ hands and gives them a sustainable alternative to fuel poverty.

Blockchain for system operators

System operators were created in the aftermath of the EU Electricity Directives which sought to deregulate the energy markets and promote competition. System operators own the physical delivery infrastructure and are responsible for its maintenance. Even in a decentralised energy network, their role is central. Blockchain applications will help network operators monitor load balances much more accurately and reflect network charges much more fairly. Coupled with complete transparency of transactions in the blockchain, consumer trust and satisfaction will increase significantly.

Blockchain applications have been the subject of resounding headlines in the cryptocurrency markets. Yet, the “crypto” in cryptocurrency extends much further than these markets. It’s a complete technology that uses cryptographic algorithms to secure transactions on a network. It does so without an interfering intermediary. Since trust is often at the root of commerce, blockchain applications will revolutionise how we source, store, and consume energy.

How Blockchain Technology Will Save the Environment

Ever since the Paris Agreement was drafted in 2015, there has been growing pressure on governments, institutions, and businesses to reduce their carbon footprints. Yet, despite technological innovations such as artificial intelligence, big data and IoT, monitoring and reducing our impact on the environment has been challenging.

Blockchain technology has long been associated with cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. It’s a distributed ledger technology (DLT) that stores and processes data in a peer-to-peer (P2P) network with no centralised authority. In fact, blockchain’s applications extend far beyond cryptocurrencies. People with interest in the environment are promoting applications in forestry, farming, energy production, pollution monitoring, recycling, and carbon emission tracking.

Blockchains are tamper-proof databases that make it possible to store, process, and share any kind of information. It’s therefore possible to track and verify transactions that carry an environmental impact and progress to net zero carbon.

In this article, we’ll examine a few applications of blockchain in environmental monitoring, and how it contributes to data management and ecological progress.

What is blockchain technology?

Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology (DLT) that keeps a record of all transactions across a peer-to-peer (P2P) network. Blockchain stores, shares, and synchronises data in blocks. Blocks represent a set of transactions. Each new block is linked to the previous block, literally creating a chain of blocks. For example, each new block of bitcoins is linked to the previous block tracing back to the Genesis Block released on January 3rd, 2009.

The release of each new block must be approved by all the participants on the network -i.e. networked computers. A consensus mechanism sets the rules for the verification, validation, and addition of transactions to the public record (or ledger). The most common consensus mechanism is a called “Proof of Work” (POW), where participants compete to find a solution to a complex cryptographic algorithm. Once a “miner” finds the solution, the other participants on the network verify the answer, and the block is added to the blockchain. All copies of the ledger are updated across the network, and the changes are permanent.


Each block is timestamped. A unique hash references the previous block. Public key cryptography ensures the authenticity and integrity of transactions. Constant updates and validation to the blockchain make unauthorised changes mathematically impossible. So, the public ledger held on each participant’s machine is unique and immutable, ensuring trust among the participants.

Further, smart contracts enable the automatic execution of contracts with no human intervention, or verification by a central authority.

Contrast blockchain ledgers to the traditional ledgers used by banks: the bank acts as the exclusive manager of the ledger, with sole responsibility for storage, updates, and verification of transactions.

Now that we have some understanding of blockchain technology, how can it be used to positively impact the environment?

Blockchain for carbon trading

It might not always be obvious, but our daily choices leave a carbon footprint. From the obvious,

like filling our cars with petrol, to the more subtle, like buying a cup of coffee or upgrading our cloud storage plan.

Carbon credits provide a mechanism within which organisations and individuals can take responsibility for their carbon choices. Carbon credits were meant to provide a tangible and practical way to meet out carbon reduction targets.

Yet the carbon market has been beset with difficulties pretty much since carbon credits were first proposed in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Differing standards and regulations have resulted in a lack of confidence. And a lack of transparency prevents many from trusting carbon credits as an asset.

Without a universally accepted ledger, it’s difficult for individuals and organisations to track how much carbon they’ve used or offset. By now, you understand a blockchain is an immutable and permanent record of transactions. It’s the perfect mechanism to tokenise and scale carbon trading. It provides for transparent and reliable tracking of carbon emissions. It allows businesses, consumers, and governments to track the environmental impact of the products they buy, sell, and produce.

Blockhain for energy efficiency

There’s little doubt that smart meters have had a positive impact on environmental awareness. They’ve sparked a greater awareness of energy usage and spurred an interest in renewable energy. Coupled with advancements in IoT devices, energy companies have a unique opportunity to transform the energy sector.

The only problem is the energy grid is mostly controlled in a centralised fashion. This creates

inefficiencies where surplus energy is not redistributed to where it’s needed. Peer-to-peer (P2P)


energy trading is an energy production structure that decentralises this control and allows consumers to also become producers of energy.

Homeowners produce electricity from solar panels, for example, and redistribute excess power to other peers (homeowners) on a local microgrid.

The advantage is power is generated, stored, and distributed locally. And it limits the need to transmit energy over long distances where losses will occur during distribution.

Blockchain algorithms are the perfect device to regulate such a network. They can monitor energy usage on the microgrid and redistribute excess power to where it’s most needed. Again, smart contracts automate tariff charges and other business rules.

Blockchain for waste management

With the U.N. estimating that 300 million tonnes of plastic waste are produced every year, and only 9% being recycled, plastic waste carries serious implications for the environment. Even more alarming, if current trends continue, there will be more plastic than fish in the oceans by 2050.

The recycling industry is plagued with inefficiencies and a lack of data. There’s a need for greater supply chain visibility for better decision-making in resource planning, pricing, and inventory management.

Companies like RecycleGO are building applications to track every piece of data about an item from production to consumption to recycling.

Blockchain could also facilitate incentivisation. Current recycling programmes don’t offer people much incentive to take part. They’re often administered by separate cities and local authorities. It’s difficult to track and compare the results from each programme.

Plastic Bank is working on a blockchain-powered app that will allow people in third world countries to exchange plastic items for cryptographic tokens. These tokens can then be exchanged for items and services like phone charging and cooking fuel.

Blockchain in supply chain

With a growing degree of environmental awareness, consumers want to buy products that are ethically sourced. But most feel they simply don’t know how to tell the difference. It’s far too easy for companies to withhold information about how they made their products, what materials they used, and how they dispose of waste.

Let’s say you’re a furniture manufacturer and you wish to prove you only use wood from sustainable forests. You would have to trace every piece of wood from forest to the final piece of furniture. At the moment, this is done through a process of labeling and certification. The problem with this approach, there’s no way of validating every single piece of wood. To complicate matters,


each certification organisation follows their own process. Thus, the furniture manufacturer is forced to follow the certification process imposed by the particular certifying body and has no way of proving conclusively their wood is sourced responsibly.

The Programme for the Endorsement of Forestry Certification is responsible for certifying some 700 million acres of forests. It’s been investigating the use of blockchain technology as a way of tracing the provenance of wood. Again, the benefits are evident. Blockchain technology is capable of recording every transaction in a publicly accessible ledger which no single party can manipulate.

The same applies to food. Blockchain technology could record the provenance of every ingredient and save millions of consumers from the complications of allergies. It could also show where food was farmed locally or prove that crops were produced by a fair trade farmer.

Blockchain in environmental treaties

Environmental treaties carry moral weight, but do they carry legal weight? With trust in governments and public policies at an all-time low, there’s often a feeling among citizens that there’s little incentive for governments or businesses to keep their commitments. Rightly or wrongly, there’s a suspicion it’s far too easy to manipulate data to serve political needs.

Blockchain would make it very difficult for corporations and governments to misreport their progress and renege on their promises. Once data is recorded on the blockchain, it’s publicly available for all to scrutinise.

The blockchain could also serve as a record of legal treaties themselves, again leaving them open to scrutiny.

Final thoughts

Most of us have heard of blockchain and the extravagant returns that are possible in the cryptocurrency markets. It’s important to remember that blockchain is the technology that powers these markets. The same technology can be applied to many other markets. At its core is a system of recording and validating transactions without relying on a single authority. It has the power to

inspire trust across the entire value creation chain, whether it’s carbon trading, energy management, recycling, or indeed any other value chain.

Why P2P energy trading is key to digital transformation

While over 100 countries have committed to net zero carbon emissions by 2050, progress on the ground is slow. With leading nations still relying on fossil fuels for their energy production, there’s a long way to go. To tackle this issue, the integration of renewable energy resources into the existing grid is emerging as a viable option.

P2P energy trading is an energy consumption model that turns passive consumers into active producers. Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology is fueling the sharing economy. It’s disrupted traditional industries like banking and it’s set to do the same for energy.

With the digitisation of the energy network begun by the smart meter rollout, the options for consumers to save money and cut carbon emissions are multiplying.

The move from centralised energy production to a decentralised peer-to-peer model presents its challenges. First, there needs to be a greater adoption of small-scale renewable energy generation eg. But there are also technical and regulatory challenges to address.

In this article, we’ll explore how distributed ledger technologies like blockchain address these challenges and enable consumers to buy and sell their own energy. As such, we’ll show that P2P energy trading is the future of the digitally-enabled energy grid.

The current state of energy trading

Before 1996 the supply of energy in the European market was controlled by monopolies. They owned production, distribution, and trading of energy. These monopolies were able to set energy prices and restrict access to new entrants since they also owned the infrastructure.

In order to stimulate competition in the internal energy market, the European Union began liberalising electricity and gas markets in 1996. Instead of developing competing networks, liberalisation separates production and supply on the one hand and distribution on the other.

This meant that generation, transmission and distribution became “unbundled”.

Where a monopoly had to be maintained (typically distribution) regulations would control the activities of operators. This would then leave energy supply open to competition.

To enable fair access to the grid for producers and suppliers, distribution would have to be maintained by independent network operators:

  • The first Electricity Directive in 1996 (Directive 96/22/EC) required suppliers to separate their accounts for production, transmission, distribution, and supply activities.
  • In 2003, Directive 2003/54/EC went further, and required functional unbundling. This created vertically integrated companies (VICs) which separated the transmission and distribution from the production and supply activities. This meant that each function was ensured by a separate company. However, this did not prevent these companies from belonging to the same group of companies.
  • The 2009 Electricity Directive recognised this limitation and introduced 3 new types of unbundling for network operators only: 1) In ownership unbundling, producers and suppliers cannot own network operating companies and vice versa. 2) Alternatively, network operators can choose not to operate the network themselves and appoint an independent system operator (ISO) instead. 3) Lastly, network operators can choose to remain within a VIC and become an independent transmission operator (ITO). However, strict rules prevent the parent company from intervening in the affairs of the network operator.

The Renewables Directive (Directive 2009/28/EU) introduced in 2009 requires network operators to ensure their grids are able to receive supplies from renewable energy production resources. They are also required to provide priority access to these resources.

What is P2P energy trading?

To meet net zero carbon emission targets, mass adoption of renewable energy resources is needed. Traditionally, consumers of energy are the passive recipients of supply from utilities. As the concept of democratisation of resources gains popularity, coupled with greater environmental awareness, there’s a growing distrust of utility companies.

The prosumer has a key role to play in the emerging energy trading economy. A prosumer consumes energy but also resells any surplus back to the grid, or to a neighbour. Peer-to-peer, or P2P energy trading is  the natural vehicle for this new economy.

Prosumers access the main grid through microgrids. A microgrid is a small-scale power generation system. It generates renewable energy locally via devices such as solar panels or wind turbines, and connects to the main utility grid. It’s a two-way system that balances the load between local power generation and the main grid. Thus, prosumers can buy or sell power from or to the grid. Microgrids can also operate independently in what’s called an islanding mode, disconnected from the main grid.

A decentralised P2P energy trading grid has many benefits including cost savings for consumers, increased network resilience, and fewer grid losses. But as the grid grows larger, trades between independent agents become more complex. Thus, there’s a need for a stable and reliable solution for data exchange and load balancing on the network.

Blockchain technology is generating a lot of interest in that regard. A blockchain is an open distributed ledger that records transactions verifiably and permanently. Distributed ledgers themselves are databases which store information across multiple sites. They aren’t controlled by a central authority. Combined with smart contracts, a blockchain stores tamper-proof records of transactions.

Blockchain technology enables P2P transactions in a transparent and secure manner:

  • It’s open and accessible to all
  • It records transactions efficiently and is scalable
  • The transactions, once recorded, cannot be altered

Basic set-up of a P2P energy trading platform

Setting up a P2P energy trading platform is not just about the technology. Market and regulatory factors contribute to a successful implementation.

Grid set-up. In order to create a viable P2P network it makes sense that there should be enough participants that wish to trade energy. There should also be a sufficient number of participants with power generation capacity. Participants should also decide whether to install a separate transmission line or whether to trade via the main grid. The P2P enabled grid, or microgrid, should be able to couple with the main grid as well as operate separately in islanding mode. Thus trading is possible with the participants on the microgrid exclusively, or surpluses can be traded with the main grid.

Hardware. At the physical level we need smart meters that monitor power production in real time, as well as smart grids (mini-,grids, microgrids, nanogrids). At the virtual layer, secure communication protocols enable communication between participants, encrypt transactions etc…

Software. Software provides a platform for P2P energy trading, supply and demand forecasting, and data analytics. Software also provides for the automated execution of trades. control of pricing mechanisms, and energy bidding mechanisms.

Regulations. Regulations govern the collection and use of data. They also outline roles and responsibilities of stakeholders, define market operation rules, and protect the rights of consumers. They provide for network access criteria and network access charges.

Benefits of P2P energy trading

We’ve just seen how P2P energy trading enables consumers to take control of their energy supply, contribute to reducing carbon emissions, and make a positive contribution to their community.

P2P energy trading supports mini-grids

Most P2P energy trading projects operate on isolated mini-grids, also called microgrids. Users on the mini-grid are often supplied with power through home solar panels which cannot store surplus electricity.

A P2P mini-grid enables homes connected to the grid to access surplus electricity. This improves access to local renewable power generation. It also makes the community resilient to power outages and may also improve access to the main grid.

P2P energy trading supports the main grid

A P2P microgrid balances local supply and demand in real-time. It reduces peak loads on the main grid. Thus it reduces the need to invest in capacity and infrastructure that meets peak demand. The operator of the main grid can further incentivise prosumers that help reduce grid congestion. Furthermore, the P2P microgrid can serve as a virtual power plant that coordinates distributed energy resources.

P2P energy trading facilitates Citizens Energy Communities

As part of its commitment to place the EU at the forefront of the clean energy transition, the European Commission released the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package (CEP) in 2016. The package consists  of 8 laws affecting, among others, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and most notably electricity market design.

With the package, the EU aims to place the consumer at the centre of not just consumption but the generation of electricity. This will give European consumers a greater choice of electricity supply, access to reliable price comparisons, and the opportunity to produce and sell their own electricity.

Citizen Energy Communities (CECs) will have the power to generate, distribute, consume, store, or provide other electricity services such as electric vehicle charging to its members. CECs are based on voluntary participation and are controlled by members and shareholders. The CEP also makes provisions for Renewable Energy Communities (RECs) where all energy production assets are renewable.

​The Clean Energy Package stipulates that the energy trading process should not be hindered by or influenced by the collection of network tariffs. Furthermore. CECs are empowered to apply whatever technology they need to facilitate the trading process. This leaves the door wide open to P2P energy trading platforms.

Final thoughts

Ever since 190 countries committed to reducing global carbon emissions at the Paris summit in 2015, the European Union and other governing bodies have been searching for ways to encourage mass adoption of renewable energy supplies. P2P energy trading empowers consumers with access to fair energy prices but also turns them into producers that serve their local communities. It comes at just the right time where environmental responsibility and the democratisation of resources is becoming centre stage.

Why Every Company Should Trace the Source of its Energy

The Green Deal

The European Green Deal vows to make Europe climate neutral by 2050, which means achieving net-zero carbon emissions. It aims to do this by cutting emissions, restoring biodiversity, and focussing on a cleaner, circular economy.

However, the current set of Green Deal policies makes reaching these targets highly unlikely. In order to be on track to being climate neutral, there needs to be a far greater focus on promoting the use of green energy.

The importance of using green energy

Green energy is any form of energy that is generated from natural resources, without harming the environment. This type of energy can come from sunlight, wind, or water, and therefore it emits no greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which are the leading cause of climate change. These natural resources are also renewable, so they not only have little to no environmental impact but can also be used repetitively without depleting the Earth’s resources.

The last decade has seen a significant increase in the use of renewable energy sources, and it has been one of the most pivotal moves towards tackling emissions. Not only on an industrial size scale, but businesses of all sizes are now realizing the importance of harnessing the power of green energy.

Energy transformation to a cleaner, more sustainable energy source is vital in order to come close to meeting the Green Deal’s targets. Using green energy is one of the key ways to reduce the impact of climate change on the environment, by preserving natural resources and reducing harmful emissions.

The benefits of tracing and certifying green energy

Once a business is using green energy it is highly valuable and necessary to trace and certify the procurement of energy from green power sources, in order to fully achieve its decarbonization goals.

Due to consumers’ significant and increasing awareness over the use of green energy, there is a high demand for businesses to be transparent about their energy usage. Authorities are also actively pushing for an increase in energy transformation and certification.

Consistent and reliable tracing allows a business to easily monitor its clean energy use and maintain a stable assurance of its origin as a renewable source. Certifying its source as green energy provides transparency and reassurance to the business itself, as well as to its clientele; establishing trust is vital for any business that claims to use green energy, in an effort to demonstrate its commitment to supporting renewable energy growth.

Blockchain technology

Blockchain technology, a type of DLT (distributed ledger technology), is a record of transactions that form a block or a group, which are then chained together and easily shared among all related parties. This type of technology has a distributed ledger which makes it impossible to violate, guaranteeing that all data involved is immutable.

Blockchain technology is a key tool in the green energy market as it assures the transparency of energy usage and sourcing through the permanent recording of data. It can be used to trace the source of energy consumption and make transactions secure and traceable.

The high degree of traceability and transparency that blockchain provides makes green energy certification processes straightforward and quick, and the supply of green energy more efficient. This encourages the production and consumption of renewable energy, ultimately speeding up the efforts to fight climate change.

Prosume’s energy source tracing service

Thanks to digitization, both the internal and external energy supply sources of any industrial building can be monitored in real-time and managed remotely and automatically. This is invaluable to the increasingly complex energy systems which are now used.

Prosume’s energy tracing technology uses blockchain and DLT solutions, which guarantee reliability and grant access only to the stakeholders that are involved. The service certifies that the procurement of energy comes from a green power source, providing transparency as a green energy consumer. The system monitors renewable power plants’ activity, generating “green tokens” that uniquely match the energy consumed. Businesses can achieve their decarbonization goals by using this technology to assure that their energy usage is fairly and consistently traced and recorded.

Prosume’s platform allows businesses to certify the green energy origin of their supply sources, forming environmental sustainability reports, and reporting the data in official financial statements. The platform legitimizes the accuracy and immutability of energy consumption data from all sources, while its easy-to-use interface encourages more sustainable habits and generates energy consumption savings.

Prosume’s platform can be tailored to each user’s needs, depending on their individual energy consumption needs and goals. The platform consistently provides transparency and trustworthiness, supporting all its users in their energy transformation journey.

Making the transformation towards green energy is essential for all industries and across all levels to significantly reduce their carbon emissions and move towards a more sustainable future. Once this has been implemented, green energy habits need to be recorded and certified efficiently. Without this, businesses are at risk of providing inaccurate and untrustworthy data that can not only greatly affect their reputations, but lead to serious repercussions.

Joining Prosume means joining a community that is intent on achieving climate neutrality as soon as possible. Prosume fosters the use of renewable sources and supports and promotes the move to a greener future for everyone.

Prosume named as one of the best Italy based software companies by Best Startup

101 startups and companies were selected for exceptional performance in one of these categories: Innovation, Growth, Societal impact, Management. Prosume is one of these.

Milan, june 2021 – Best Startup published the list of top picks for the best Italy based Software companies. These startups and companies are taking a variety of approaches to innovating the Software industry, but are all exceptional companies well worth a follow.

Prosume has been positioned among these cutting edge companies and it is an honour to see our hard work, commitment and enthusiasm recognised. 

Since the birth of the company, our mission has been to make the energy market decentralized and sustainable, providing an interoperable digital layer that connects final users with energy service providers. Day after day, month after month, year after year we have seen our aspirations take shape and be acknowledged as a priority in today’s society. 

The advantages of decentralising the energy system are clear: a reduction in transmission losses,  a higher security of supply, and a more renewable generation mix. 

Besides this, we believe that distributed models will have a great impact on society as we know it now, raising awareness about energy usage, environment, data protection and transparency. 

We are firmly committed to defining new rules for the community we live in, based on the principles of transparency, sustainability, independence and efficiency. At Prosume we believe that protecting the environment and social rights are fundamental steps to build the  future of the world we all share.

Decentralized, decarbonized, digitized policies are the only possible future for sustainable energy matrices.

Prosume awarded the “Blockchains for Social Good Prize” from the European Commission

We are honoured to announce that Prosume has been awarded the ‘Blockchains for Social Good Prize” from the European Commission! Our open source and interoperable blockchain solution for sustainable and decentralised energy production and consumption has been selected among almost 200 applications coming from 43 countries worldwide.


The European Innovation Council (EIC) Prize has awarded €5 million to six winners selected in a call to identify scalable, deployable and high-impact blockchain solutions for societal challenges. The winning solutions propose blockchain applications for fair trade and circular economy, increasing transparency in production processes and quality information, improving accountability and contributing to financial inclusion and renewable energy.

I warmly congratulate all the winners. The proposed solutions show how blockchain can create positive social change by supporting fair trade, increasing transparency in production processes and e-commerce and contributing to financial inclusion by exploring decentralised economic structures. I hope that this award can help upscale these outstanding ideas and inspire many others innovators. (Mariya Gabriel, Commissioner for Innovation Research, Culture, Education and Youth)

This is an important victory for us and the whole renewable energy community: energy was not foreseen in the official prize categories, and we won ex aequo with another company. The energy transition is one of the biggest structural challenges humanity is facing today: our vision is that in the current climate crisis renewables need to be considered a common good (instead of a mere commodity) and that decentralising their production and distribution is crucial to avoid the appropriation of this common good by energy monopolies, which can easily create an artificial scarcity with strong repercussions on social and economic inequalities.


In a world that is increasingly digital – thus dramatically energy-dependent at household level as well as at industrial one, the energy sector transition should be a worldwide priority. Imagine a renewables-based economy, where both the energy and the infrastructure distributing it are considered common goods, just like the streets we walk in. Where privacy, data protection and information security are the backbones of decentralized energy platforms and infrastructures. Where citizens are empowered to make sustainable choices and own their local energy production. This is the world we are building at Prosume. (Alex D’Elia, Founder and President of Prosume)


Due to the magnitude of the material infrastructure needed to run energy production and distribution, decentralisation alone in the energy sector does not guarantee that at the level of governance there will be a shift of power from big players to citizens: indeed, most blockchain projects in the energy market limit themselves to localised tokenisation of energy led by monopolies. Instead, PROSUME addresses the problem of social justice in the energy market by allowing the equal participation of prosumers to energy production and balancing. The centrality of prosumers implies increasing the amount of renewables in circulation, reducing the monopoly of traditional energy players, optimising energy consumption and production, as well as rewarding citizens who produce and consume responsibly. In a word, a true decentralisation.

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